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Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Sewage disposal systems in Cattaraugus County are regulated by the Environmental Health Division in accordance with NYS standards and specifications in effect at the time of their construction.  Existing sewage disposal systems that do not meet current standards are allowed to be operated until they fail and are in need of full or partial replacement.

Installation of a New or Replacement Sewage Disposal System

All private sewage disposal systems repaired or installed in Cattaraugus County require a permit issued by the Environmental Health Division prior to construction.  Commercial and large sewage systems (systems with a design flow of 1000 gallons per day or greater) also require a State Pollution Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) Permit issued by the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation and require the services of a licensed Professional Engineer.

To obtain a permit:

1.  You, or a selected contractor acting as your representative must complete the "Application for a Small Sewage Disposal System Construction Permit" and submit it with payment to the Environmental Health Division.

2.  An inspector will perform a site investigation with you and your contractor.  This involves evaluating the site for potential environmental and health hazards, as well as evaluating the soil stratum and soil percolation rates.  For replacement systems, or sites with severe space restrictions, an engineering evaluation or design may be necessary.

3.  The inspector will design your sewage system in accordance with the current NYS standards using the information obtained during the site inspection, then issue a "Permit to Construct a Small Sewage Disposal System."

4.  Once the system is constructed, the inspector will visit the site again to inspect the work before it is covered.  If the construction is satisfactory, a "Permit to Operate a Small Sewage Disposal System" will be issued, to the owner.

Operation & Maintenance of Your Small Sewage Disposal System

Over time all sewage disposal systems eventually fail, requiring replacement of part or all of the system.  This is often due to a lack of maintenance, plugging of the soil around your leach system or in your sand filter.  Fortunately, this process generally takes decades and steps can be taken to prevent premature failure enabling you to maximize the lifespan of your system.

  • Have your tank pumped regularly.  When used at full capacity, you should have your tank pumped every two to three years.  Without regular pumping solids will accumulate in your tank causing your system to backup, or worse allow solids to enter your leaching system/sand filter, thereby plugging the soil.  If your septic tank is equipped with an outlet filter, make sure it gets cleaned whenever you have your tank pumped.  Seasonal and under-utilized systems can have tanks pumped on a longer schedule.
  • Avoid introducing toxic or caustic chemicals into your sewage system.  Many common cleaners, beauty products, and expired medications can be harmful to the bacteria living in your septic tank.  They will reduce the effectiveness of the sewage treatment and in a short time, can damage the sewage system components.  BEWARE of products advertised as miracle cures for a failed system.  Do not waste money or flush such products down your toilet.
  • Do NOT drive over your sewage system.  Unless specifically designed to be driven over, sewage system components may be damaged by the extra weight of a vehicle (broken sewer lines are common).  Vehicle traffic around your leaching system/sand filter is particularly harmful.  Even without physical damage to the components, soil compaction will prevent septic tank effluent from leaching into the ground.
  • Mow the area over and around your sewage system regularly.  The roots of larger plants like bushes and trees will grow into the pipes of your sewage system causing pipe breaks and blockages.  Regular mowing will prevent these types of plants from becoming established and creating problems.
  • Periodically inspect your system components and pipes.  Newer systems have inspection ports, vertical pipes installed so that you can view the flow of effluent through your sewage system.  They will stick up above the ground and should have a cap on them.  When the system is functioning properly, there should be no standing water in these pipes.  Remember to recap them after use to prevent foreign objects from entering your system.  Do not cut these pipes off at ground level.  They are both useful and important, even if they are difficult to mow around.

For more information regarding private sewage disposal systems, please contact the Environmental Health Division.

Forms & Links

Sewage Disposal System Permit Application & Information

10 NYCCR Appendix 75-A: Wastewater Treatment Standards - Individual Household Systems

NYS Department of Environmental Conservation – State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES)